Chapter 2: Ontology
Ontology is a theory concerning the beings created by God. It deals with such topics as the basic, common attributes of created beings, and attempts to describe how these beings exist and act. Hence, the purview of the field of ontology includes all created beings. Since the human being is the lord of dominion over all things arid occupies a position different from that of other things, the human being will be discussed in a chapter apart, namely, "Theory of Original Human Nature." From the above we can note that, whereas the theory of the Original Image deals with God, ontology in Unification Thought deals primarily with things.
In other words, Unification ontology is a theory that supports the theory of the Original Image. Further, the theory of the Original Image is a deductive theory based on the Unification Principle. It is in ontology, however, that we can ascertain whether or not the attributes of God explained in the theory of the Original Image are actually manifested in all things and, if so, how they are manifested. If it can be shown that the attributes of God are universally manifested in all things, then the truthfulness of the theory of the Original Image becomes ascertained. Hence, ontology, which deals with the attributes of all things, can be described as a theory that confirms, in visible terms, the attributes of the invisible God.
Natural sciences, which deal with things, have made rapid progress. Yet, in most cases, scientists have been observing the natural world from a purely objective point of view, without any consideration of God. In the present discussion of ontology, however, I will attempt to show that the achievements of the natural sciences have become the very bases upon which the theories concerning God can be validated.
According to the Unification Principle, human beings were created in the image of God, and all things were created in the likeness of the human being. Prior to creating the universe, God first envisioned the image of the human being, which resembles God's own image. Then, using the human image as the prototype, and in likeness to it, God formed the idea of the various things of creation. This is called "creation by resemblance." Because of the Human Fall, however, human beings and societies lost their original nature and became chaotic, even though the things themselves have remained as originally created. For this reason, no matter how much we may observe the actual human beings and societies, we will never find in them the way to solve their problems. That is why many saints and sages of the past have sought to understand the way for people to live by observing the natural world, and having obtained an intuitive understanding of the way of life, they spread their teachings. They were unable, however, to clarify why it is possible to obtain, from the natural world, the truth for people and society. They obtained only a merely intuitive realization of the truth.
Unification Thought maintains that, since all things were created in the likeness of human beings, it is possible to know about the original features of human beings and society through observing the natural world. In the theory of the Original Image, it was explained that the correct understanding of God is the key to solving the problems of individuals and society. If the correct understanding of God's attributes is the first standard for solving problems, the correct understanding of the attributes of all things becomes the second standard. Ontology, therefore, is needed also for solving the problems of the real world and for building the original ideal society.
In the present study of ontology, existing beings will be dealt with from two separate aspects, namely, the aspect of image of existence and the aspect of mode of existence. Image of existence refers to the image of existing beings, namely, the attributes that existing beings possess. Mode of existence refers to the motion of existing beings.
Let us first discuss the image of existence. This discussion includes the topics of the individual truth body and the connected body. "Individual truth body" refers to the image of existence of a being considered independently, that is, without regard to its relationships to other beings. In actuality, however, all beings (i.e., existing beings) have mutual relationships with one another. When a being is seen in its relationships with other beings, the image of existence of that being is called a "connected body." Since all existing beings were created in the likeness of God, the image of existence of each being resembles die Divine Image. The Divine Image includes the universal image and the individual image. This is why a being that has both a universal image and an individual image in the likeness of the Original Image is called an individual truth body. At this point I will discuss the universal image of an individual truth body, namely, its Sungsang-Hyungsang and Yang-Yin.
I. The Universal Image of the Individual Truth Body
A. Sungsang and Hyungsang
Every created being has the same attributes as those of the Original Image, namely, the dual aspects of Sungsang and Hyungsang.
Sungsang refers to the invisible, immaterial aspects of created beings, such as faculties and nature. Hyungsang refers to the visible aspects of created beings, such as mass, structure, and shape. In minerals, the Sungsang is physico-chemical function, and the Hyungsang is mass, structure, shape, and so on, composed of atoms and molecules.
Plants have their own peculiar Sungsang and Hyungsang. The Sungsang peculiar to plants is life, and the Hyungsang peculiar to plants is their cells and tissues, which compose their structure and shape -- in other words, the body of the plant. Life is consciousness latent within the body, and it possesses purposefulness and directiveness. The function of life is the ability of a being to grow while maintaining control over itself. Therefore, it can be said that life has autonomy. While plants possess the Sungsang and Hyungsang that are peculiar to them, they also contain the elements of Sungsang and Hyungsang of the level of minerals. In other worlds, plants contain mineral matter.
In animals, there are aspects of Sungsang and Hyungsang that are peculiar to animals and exist on a level higher than that of plants. The Sungsang peculiar to animals is instinct, and the Hyungsang peculiar to animals comprises sense organs and nerves. Animals, also, have mineral matter, which contains the Sungsang and Hyungsang of the mineral level. In addition, animals also have tile plant-level Sungsang and Hyungsang, all the cells and tissues of the animals live on this level.
Tile human being is a two-fold being of spirit person and physical person. Therefore, the Sungsang and Hyungsang of human beings are unique and of a higher level than those of the animals. The Sungsang unique to human beings is the "spirit mind," which is the mind of the spirit person, and tile Hyungsang unique to human beings is the physical mind, which is the mind of the physical person. As it happens, mineral matter is contained in the physical body; in this sense, the human being has mineral-level Sungsang and Hyungsang as well. The human being is made of cells and tissues, and therefore, has the plant-level Sungsang and Hyungsang as well. Like the animals, the human being has sense organs and nerves, and hence the Sungsang and Hyungsang corresponding to animals. Tile animal-level Sungsang in human beings, namely, the instinctive mind, is called "physical mind." While the spirit mind pursues the values of trueness, goodness, and beauty, the physical mind pursues a life of food, clothing, shelter, and sex. That which is called the "human mind" is a combination of the spirit mind and the physical mind.
Let us now discuss the physical person and the spirit person of a human being. The physical person consists of tile same elements as those of the natural world and has a certain period of time for its existence. In contrast, the spirit person is made of spiritual elements, which cannot be perceived with our physical senses; yet, the spirit person has an appearance no different from that of the physical person. When the physical person dies, the spirit person discards it -- much in the same way as we take off an article of clothing when we no longer need it. And having discarded the physical person, the spirit person goes on to the spirit world, where it lives forever.
The spirit person is composed of the dual characteristics of Sungsang and Hyungsang. The Sungsang of the spirit person is the spirit mind, and its Hyungsang is the spirit body. Tile sensibilities of the spirit person are nurtured in a mutual relationship with tile physical person.
Therefore, if an individual dies after having practised God's love to a sufficient degree during life on earth, that individual's spirit person will lead a life of joy filled with love in the spirit world. In contrast, those who commit evil acts on earth cannot but meet a life of suffering after death. In the physical person, the Sungsang is the physical mind, and the Hyungsang is the physical body.
Thus, human beings possess the Sungsangs and Hyungsangs of minerals, plants, and animals; in addition, they possess a Sungsang and Hyungsang of an even higher level. When seen in this way, the human being can be regarded as the integration of all things, or the microcosm of the universe. From the above explanation, it becomes clear that, as the level of existing beings becomes higher from minerals to plants, animals, and human beings -- the Sungsang and Hyungsang become more substantial by layers. This is called "layered structure of Sungsang and Hyungsang in existing beings" and is illustrated in Fig. 2-1.
It must be noted that human beings were not created simply by accumulating the respective Sungsangs and Hyungsangs peculiar to minerals, plants, and animals, and then adding to them the Sungsang and Hyungsang unique to human beings. In the process of creation, God first formed the idea of a human being as a being of united Sungsang and Hyungsang. He formed the idea of animals, plants, and minerals by lowering the dimensions of, and subtracting specific elements from, the Sungsang and Hyungsang of human beings. In the actual act of creation, however, God followed the reverse order -- that is, He created minerals first, then plants, animals, and finally human beings. Therefore, from the viewpoint of the results, it would appear that the human Sungsang and Hyungsang were made by accumulating the layers of the Sungsangs and Hyungsangs unique to minerals, plants, and animals but this is just a matter of appearance.
That the human Sungsang and Hyungsang possesses a layered structure (See Fig. 2-1) has two important consequences: First, this layered structure implies that there is continuity among the various layers within the Sungsang. Specifically, the human mind, though it is made of spirit mind and physical mind, possesses continuity between these two minds; hence, a human being can control the physical mind through the spirit mind. Furthermore, the human mind is connected with life, or autonomy. Even though, through the conscious mind, one cannot usually control the autonomous nerves, yet it is well known that such control becomes possible through training. Yoga practitioners, for example, can, through meditation, change the pace of their heartbeats or even altogether halt the pulsation of the heart. In addition, the human mind is connected with the Sungsang of minerals within the body. Also, the human mind is externally connected with the Sungsang of plants and animals. It is also known that human beings can influence Minerals (i.e., matter) outside themselves without using physical means.
Fig. 2-1 Layered Structure of Sungsang and Hyungsang in Existing Beings
In addition, it is said that animals, plants, and minerals respond to the human mind. That animals respond to the human mind is well known, but now it has come to be known that plants, also, respond to the human mind. 3 Furthermore, it has been reported that there may exist perceptive ability even in the realms of minerals and elementary particles. 4 Secondly, the layered structure of the human Sungsang and Hyungsang provides important suggestions with regard to the question of life.
Theists and atheists have continually argued about the existence or non-existence of God, but in modern times, after the development of natural sciences, those who deny die existence of God (the atheists) have, in many respects, stood in a position of advantage. Based on natural science, which cannot prove the existence of God, atheists have asserted that God does not exist; nevertheless, in view of the question of life, not even atheists have been able to deny the existence of God with complete confidence. The reason is that they have not been able scientifically to explain the origin of life. Hence, the question of life has become the sole foothold on which theism can base its position. Today, however, that foothold is being threatened by atheists, for scientists now assert they have reached the stage where they can create life.
Then, can scientists, indeed, create life? According to contemporary biology, the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) contained in the chromosomes of a cell contains four kinds of nitrogenous bases, namely, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. The arrangements of these four kinds of bases form the genetic information of a cell, which can be called the blueprint of a living organism. The structure and functions of a living organism are determined by this genetic information. Therefore, it can be said that living things, ultimately, are made through the DNA. But scientists today have become able to synthesize the DNA. Therefore, materialists have come to conclude that God is quite unnecessary to explain the phenomena of life.
But is the synthesizing of the DNA by scientists the same as the creation of life? From the viewpoint of Unification Thought, the answer is no. Even if scientists can synthesize the DNA, they will merely have succeeded in producing the Hyungsang aspect of life phenomena.
Life, properly speaking, is the Sungsang aspect of life phenomena. Therefore, what scientists have become able to produce is not life itself, but simply the carrier of life.
Figuratively, this point may be elucidated by using radio. A radio receiver is a device that converts electromagnetic waves into sound waves. It seizes the electromagnetic waves coming from a broadcasting station and converts them into sound waves. Therefore, the fact that scientists have created a radio does not mean that they have created sound. Likewise, the fact that scientists have produced the DNA does not mean they have produced life itself, it means, simply, that they have produced a device that is capable of carrying life.
The universe is a life field; it is filled with life. Life originates from God's Sungsang. When there is a device that is capable of seizing life, then, and only then, can life appear. What corresponds to that device is precisely the special molecules called DNA. Such a conclusion can be drawn from the layered structure of the Sungsang and Hyungsang.
B. Yang and Yin
We shall now discuss the yang and yin characteristics of the individual truth body. As stated in the theory of the Original Image, yang and yin are attributes of the Sungsang and Hyungsang. This means that there are yang-yin characteristics in the Sungsang and yang-yin characteristics in the Hyungsang.
Let us first deal with the yang-yin characteristics of the human Sungsang and Hyungsang. The human Sungsang is the mind, which possesses the faculties of intellect, emotion, and will. There are yang aspects and yin aspects in each of the faculties of the mind (i.e., intellect, emotion, and will). The yang aspects of the intellect are clearness, good memory, power of recall, distinctness, wittiness, and so.
The yin aspects of the intellect are vagueness, forgetfulness, power to absorb in memory, unclear ideas, seriousness, and so on. The yang aspects of emotion are pleasantness, loudness, joy, excitement, and so on. And the yin aspects of emotion are unpleasantness, quietness, sorrow, composure, and so on. The yang aspects of the will are activeness, aggressiveness, creativeness, carefreeness, and so on. And the yin aspects of the will are passiveness, embracing nature, conservativeness, carefulness, and so on.
With regard to the Hyungsang, or the physical body, protuberant parts, protrusions, convex parts, the front side, and so on, are the yang aspects; whereas sunken part,;, orifices, concave parts, the back side, and so on, are the yin aspects. The details of these points can be arranged as in Fig. 2-2.
Clearness, Good Memory, Power of Recall, Distinctness, Wittiness
Vagueness, Forgetfulness, Power to Absorb in Memory, Unclear Ideas, Seriousness
Pleasantness, Loudness, Joy, Excitement
Unpleasantness, Quietness, Sorrow, Composure
Activeness, Aggressiveness, Creativeness, Carefreeness
Passiveness, Embracing Nature, Conservativeness, Carefulness
Protuberant Parts, Protrusions, Convex Parts, Front Side
Sunken Parts, Orifices, Concave Parts, Back Side
Fig. 2-2 Yang and Yin as Attributes of the Human Sungsang and Hyungsang
In a similar way, in animals, plants, and minerals there are yang and yin in the Sungsang as well as yang and yin in the Hyungsang, Animals sometimes behave actively and sometimes do not. Plants sometimes grow and sometimes do not; sometimes plants open their flowers, and sometimes they close them. In minerals, physico-chemical functions sometimes proceed intensely and other times do not.
Those are yang and yin characteristics of tile Sungsang. As for the yang and yin characteristics of the Hyungsang, these are protuberances and orifices, bulges and hollows, front and back, light and dark, strong and weak, pure and impure, hot and cold, day and night, summer and winter, heaven and earth, mountain and valley, and so forth.
Thus far I have explained yang and yin in the Sungsang and Hyungsang of individual truth bodies, whereby yang and yin are the attributes of Sungsang and of Hyungsang, Besides, at each one of the levels of human beings, animals, plants, and minerals, we can find a yang substantial being and a yin substantial being. These are man and woman in human beings, male and female in animals, stamen and pistil in plants, cation and anion in minerals, and protons and electrons in atoms. It has been said that there are male and female even in single-cell bacteria. 5 As stated earlier, the Sungsang and Hyungsang of human. beings each possess the attributes of yang and yin. This applies both to man and to woman. Then, what kind of difference is there between man and woman?
In the Hyungsang, man and woman are clearly different from each other; as is evident from the difference that exists in tile chromosomes within their cells. Man's body has more yang elements than woman's, and woman's body has more yin elements than man's. With regard to the Hyungsang, the difference between man and woman is a quantitative difference.
In contrast, the difference between man and woman with regard to the Sungsang (i.e., intellect, emotion, and will) is a qualitative difference. As explained earlier, both man and woman have yang and yin in the intellect, yang and yin in the emotion, and yang and yin in tile will. There are, however, qualitative differences between man and woman with regard to yang and yin. For example, men and women are different in their expression of joy, which is a yang aspect of emotion, and they are also different in their expression of sorrow, which is a yin aspect of emotion. Figuratively speaking, this difference can be compared to that of vocal music. In the high vocal ranges, tenor (male) and soprano (female) correspond to yang; in the low vocal ranges, bass (male) and alto (female) correspond to yin. In each of these cases, there is a qualitative difference. As shown through this comparison, tile difference between yang and yin in the Sungsang is a qualitative difference, and therefore, masculinity appears in man and femininity appears in woman.
Let us now examine how the functions of yang and yin operated in the process of the creation of the universe. We can compare the creation of the universe to the playing of a symphony. That is, it can be said that God has been playing a grand symphony entitled "Tile Creation of Heaven and Earth." God started with the "Big Bang," 6 and then created the galaxies, the solar system, and the earth. On earth, He created plants, animals, and finally human beings. In the playing of a symphony, various yangs and yins are operating, such as high and low tones, strong and weak sounds, long and short sounds, as well as yang instruments and yin instruments. In a similar way, in the process of the creation of the universe, various yangs and yins are considered to have been at work.
In our galaxy there are about 200 billion stars, which are arranged in a spiral. The areas of the galaxy where the stars are in dense concentration are yang, and the areas where the stars are sparse are yin. On earth, lands and oceans were formed; the land is yang, and the ocean in yin. Mountain and valley, day and night, morning and evening, summer and winter, and so forth, are all expressions of yang and yin. Through the various yangs and yins operating in this way, the universe was created, the earth was formed, living things came into being, and humankind appeared.
Human activities, also, are carried out through the functions of yang and yin. Through the harmony between husband and wife, a family is formed. In artistic creation, harmonies between strong and weak lines, light and dark colors, big and small masses, and so on are required.
In this way, both in the creation of the universe and in the activities of human society, yang and yin are functioning in Sungsang and Hyungsang. The harmonious action of yang and yin is an indispensable factor in variety and development, as well as in the expression of beauty.
II. Subject and Object
I have explained that an individual truth body has the universal image, which consists of Sungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin. Sungsang and Hyungsang, and also yang and yin, exist in relationships of subject and object. An individual truth body, which is a created being, possesses yet another type of subject and object pair besides Sungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin. This pair consists of principal element and subordinate element (or principal being and subordinate being). This results from the fact that the created world is temporal and spatial in nature.
For example, the relationships between parents and children in the family, between teachers and students in schools, between the sun and the earth in the solar system, and between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in cells are neither relationships of Sungsang and Hyungsang nor relationships of yang and yin. These are relationships of principal element and subordinate element, or principal being and subordinate being. This shows that there are three kinds of subject-and-object relationships in individual truth bodies, namely, Sungsang and Hyungsang, yang and yin, and principal element (being) and subordinate element (being). All of these resemble the relationship of subject and object in the dual characteristics of God.
The characteristic features of the relationship between subject and object are those of central and dependent, active and passive, dynamic and static, creative and conservative, initiating and responding, extrovert and introvert, and so forth. This does not mean that a particular principal element and a particular subordinate element must have all of these relationships at any one time; they may sometimes be in the relationship of central and dependent, sometimes in the relationship of active and passive, and so forth. Generally speaking, the relationship between the subject and the object is that between one exercising dominion over the other and one receiving dominion from the other.
A. The System of Individual Truth Bodies in the Created World
Every existing being contains a correlative relationship of Sungsang and Hyungsang, yang and yin, and principal element (being) and subordinate element (being). This will be explained through a few examples of individual truth bodies on different levels, extending from the largest world (macrocosm) down to the smallest elementary particles (microcosm).
The cosmos itself is an individual truth body. It consists of the spirit world and the physical world (the physical world is also called "the universe"). The spirit world is the invisible world, and the physical world is the visible world. These two worlds exist in the relationship of subject and object. In this particular case, the subject-and-object relationship is that between Sungsang and Hyungsang.
The universe (i.e., the physical world), in turn, is an individual truth body as well. The universe has a center, and around that center, about 200 billion galaxies (or nebulae) are revolving. In this particular relationship, the center of die universe is the principal element, and each galaxy is a subordinate element. A galaxy, also, is an individual truth body. The galaxy in which we live, for instance, consists of a nucleus and about 200 billion stars. The galactic nucleus is the principal element, and the stars are the subordinate elements; these two kinds of elements exist in the relationship of subject and object.
Our sun is one of the stars in the galaxy. The solar system, also, is an individual truth body. The solar system consists of the sun and nine planets. The sun and the planets are in the respective positions of principal element and subordinate elements, forming a relationship of subject and object. The earth, one of the planets in the solar system, is an individual truth body as well. The earth has a core, on one hand, and a surface and crust, on the other. These are the principal element (core) and the subordinate element (surface and crust), forming a relationship of subject and object.
The surface of the earth can, likewise, be regarded as an individual truth body. The earth's surface consists of all the natural things, and is inhabited by human beings. Human beings are the principal element (the subject), and natural things are the subordinate elements (the object). Human beings form nations, which are individual truth bodies, consisting of government and people, where the government is the principal element (the subject) and the people is the subordinate element (the object).
The family, also, is an individual truth body, consisting of parents and children, or husband and wife. Parents and children are in the relationship of principal and subordinate individuals, whereas husband and wife are in the relationship of yang and yin individuals. Parents and children are in the relationship of subject and object; husband and wife, also, are in the relationship of subject and object. An individual person, also, is an individual truth body, consisting of a spirit person and a physical person. In this case, the spirit person and the physical person are in a subject-and-object relationship, forming a relationship of Sungsang and Hyungsang.
If now we turn our eyes to the physical person, it consists of physical mind and physical body, which are in the relationship of subject and object as Sungsang and Hyungsang, respectively. Within the human body, each cell is an individual truth body, consisting of a nucleus as the principal element and the cytoplasm as the subordinate element. The nucleus of the cell, in turn, is an individual truth body, consisting of chromosomes as the principal element and nuclear sap as the subordinate element. Each chromosome also, is an individual truth body, consisting of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the principal element and proteins as the subordinate element.
Nucleic acid is a molecule, which in itself is an individual truth body, consisting of nitrogenous bases (purines and pyrimidines) as the principal element and sugars (ribose or deoxyribose) and phosphate as the subordinate element. Bases, sugars, and phosphate are formed by atoms. An atom is an individual truth body, consisting of protons as the principal element and electrons as the subordinate element. Atoms are formed by elementary particles. An elementary particle is an individual truth body as well, consisting of a principal element and a subordinate element.
Hence, there are many levels of individual truth bodies in the universe, from elementary particles in the microcosm to the heavenly bodies of the macrocosm, including the cosmos itself. Each of them consists of correlative elements of subject and object. When an individual truth body is seen from the viewpoint of a higher-level individual truth body, the lower-level one is nothing but a component of the higher-level one. For example, the solar system is an individual truth body, consisting of the sun and the planets; when, however, it is seen from the viewpoint of the galaxy (a higher-level individual truth body), the solar system is nothing but a component of the galaxy. This means that "individual truth body" is a relative concept. Moreover, "subject" and "object" are relative concepts as well. For example, the sun is subject to the planets, but in the galaxy, it is object to the nucleus of the galaxy. The progressive system of individual truth bodies and the correlative elements of subject and object within them are laid out in Fig. 2-3.
B. Types of Subjects and Objects
The concepts of subject and object in Unification Thought are not the same as the concepts of subject and object in traditional philosophy. That difference will now be clarified.
From an epistemological perspective, "subject" in traditional philosophy refers to that which cognizes, that is, consciousness, or self, whereas "object" refers to that which is cognized. Thus, subject refers to that which exists within consciousness (ideas) and object refers to that which exists outside consciousness (matter). From an ontological perspective, or in a practical sense, subject in traditional philosophy refers to an existing being with consciousness (i.e., a human being), whereas object refers to a being with which the subject is faced. In short, in traditional philosophy subject and object refer to the relationship between consciousness (or the human being) and the thing which it is faced with.
Fig. 2-3: The System of Individual Truth Bodies and the Correlative Elements Within Each Individual Truth Body on Each Level
In Unification Thought, the concepts of subject and object bear a different meaning. These concepts refer not only to the relationship between a human being and a thing, but also to the relationship between a human being and another human being, and to that between a thing and another thing. These relationships are of four types, as follows:
1. Original type
The original type refers to a relationship that is everlasting and universal from the perspective of God's creation. Examples of the original type are the relationships between parents and children, husband and wife, teacher and students, star and planets, nucleus and cytoplasm, and protons and electrons.
2. Temporary type
Relationships that last for a limited time are of the temporary type. These relationships frequently occur in day-to-day life. One example is the relationship between a lecturer and the audience, which is established when a lecture is being given. Even in relationships of the original type, the positions are sometimes reversed to create a relationship of the temporary type. In the family, for instance, the wife may sometimes take on the responsibility of the husband, and the children may sometimes take on the responsibility of the parents. Such relationships can be regarded as being of the temporary type. But even in such cases, the original type does not totally disappear; thus, they are simply relationships of a temporary type based on the original type.
3. Alternating type
When the subject alternates with the object, the relationship is of die alternating type. An example of this is a dialogue between two persons: The one who speaks is the subject, and the one who listens is the object. In a dialogue, however, the speaking person and the listening person alternate with each other -- hence, this is a relationship of the alternating type.
4. Arbitrary type
In certain relationships, the human being arbitrarily decides which element is the subject and which is the object.
These are called relationships of the arbitrary type. For example, in the relationship between animals and plants, animals discharge carbon dioxide, which is given to plants; and plants, in turn, discharge oxygen, which is given to animals. From the perspective of the flow of oxygen, plants can be regarded as the subject; but from the perspective of the flow of carbon dioxide, animals can be regarded as the subject. This and similar cases fall under the arbitrary type.
C. Give-and-Receive Action
When a correlative relationship of subject and object is formed centering on a common purpose, either between two elements within a being or between a being and another being, there comes about an action of giving and receiving a definite element or force. Through this action, the entities involved maintain their existence and are able to move, change, and develop. This kind of action between subject and object is called "give-and-receive action." For example, when students enrol in a school, a correlative relationship is established between students and teachers. The teachers provide instruction, and the students gain new learning. This is called give-and-receive action. Through this action, knowledge and techniques are transmitted, and also the students' personality and character are built.
The following example can explain the meaning of correlative relationship. When a man and a woman become acquainted with each other, by some opportunity or by arrangement, they form what is called a "correlative relationship." If subsequently they get married, form a family, and live a life of love, they are engaging in what is called "give-and-receive action." The solar system is another example: the sun and the planets have been in a correlative relationship since 4.6 billion years ago, maintaining the solar system by attracting one another through universal gravitation. This is another example of give-and-receive action.
In God, there are the identity-maintaining aspect and the developmental aspect. In the identity-maintaining aspect, the Original Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang engage in give-and-receive action centering on Heart, forming a union and existing forever. In the developmental aspect, the Original Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang engage in give-and-receive action centering on purpose (i.e., the purpose of creation), engendering a multiplied body, or a created being. The first relationship is described as "identity-maintaining give-and-receive action," and the second one is described as "developmental give-and-receive action." In similar fashion, there are identity-maintaining give-and receive action and developmental give-and-receive action in the created world. For instance, in our galaxy, give-and-receive action takes place between its nucleus and about 200 billion stars centered on the nucleus. The shape of the galaxy has the form of a convex lens and is constant, and all the stars perform revolving motions while keeping their own particular orbits. From this perspective, the galaxy has an unchanging aspect. On the other hand, it is said that in the beginning the galaxy revolved slowly, but as time went on, it came to revolve faster and faster. Also, it is well known that old stars die and new stars are born. Thus, the galaxy has the aspect of change as well. Hence, there are aspects of both identity-maintaining give-and-receive action and developmental give-and-receive action in the galaxy.
Furthermore, within the Sungsang of God (i.e., the Original Sungsang), the Inner Sungsang and the Inner Hyungsang engage in give-and-receive action centering either on Heart or on purpose, whereby they either form a "union" or produce a "new body" (i.e., a "multiplied body"), respectively. This is called "inner give-and-receive action." On the other hand, the Original Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang, also, engage in give-and-receive action centering either on Heart on purpose, whereby they either form a "union" or produce a "new body" ("multiplied body"), respectively. This is called "outer give-and-receive action." This pattern of two-stage action, namely, inner give-and-receive action and outer give-and-receive action, based on the two-stage structure of God, applies directly to the created world. For example, in the relationship between a human being and things, the human being, through inner give-and-receive action, engages in thinking, and then, through outer give-and-receive action, cognizes things and exercises dominion over them. In human society, the give-and-receive action between the spirit mind and the physical mind of a human being is inner give-and-receive action, whereas the give-and-receive action between a human being and another is outer give-and-receive action.
There are five types of give-and-receive action, which will be explained next. What distinguishes one type from another is whether or not the subject and the object possess consciousness.
1. Bi-Conscious Type
In a classroom, the teacher is the subject and the students are the objects, and they engage in give-and-receive action while both sides are conscious of that action. This is called give-and-receive action of the bi-conscious type. The subject and the object can be both conscious not only in cases between a human being and another, but also in cases between a human being and an animal, and even between an animal and another. Such relationships are of the bi-conscious type.
2. Uni-Conscious Type
When a teacher writes words on a blackboard, give-and-receive action takes place between the teacher and the blackboard. In this case, the teacher acts consciously, but the blackboard does not. One side alone (the subject) has consciousness while the other side (the object) does not. This is called give-and-receive action of the uni-conscious type.
3. Unconscious Type
Animals inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide in their breathing actions. On the other hand, plants absorb carbon dioxide during the daytime and release oxygen. In this instance, animals do not consciously exhale carbon dioxide for the sake of plants, neither do plants consciously release oxygen for the sake of animals. Both sides act unconsciously while exchanging carbon dioxide and oxygen. Cases in which both parties engage in give-and-receive action unconsciously, even if one or both parties may have consciousness, are called give-and-receive action of the unconscious type.
4. Heteronomous Type
When neither the subject nor the object possesses consciousness, and both are induced by the will of a third party to engage in give-and-receive action, the relationship is called give-and receive action of the heteronomous type. For example, the sun and the earth engage in give-and-receive action according to God's purpose of creation, even though they are not conscious of it. This is give-and-receive action of the heteronomous type. In another example, the various parts of a watch engage in give-and-receive action with one another according to the will of the person who made it. Such kinds of give-and-receive actions are of the heteronomous type.
5. Contrast Type (Collation Type)
When we contrast two or more things and thereby discover harmony between them, we regard them as engaging in some sort of give-and-receive action. This is called give-and-receive action of the contrast type, or collation type. In this relationship, the human observer determines (consciously or unconsciously) one element to be the subject and the other to be the object, contrasts them, and thereby regards them as engaging in give-and-receive action.
Art appreciation is a typical case of give-and-receive action of the contrast type. In creating an artwork, the artist adjusts and contrasts colors, shades of light, sounds, and so forth, in order to harmonize these elements. In art appreciation, the appreciator, when confronted with an artwork (a painting, a musical piece, etc.) will also contrast the various elements within the artwork to find harmony in them.
Give and receive action of the contrast type can also be found in the process of thinking. For example, the judgment "this flower is a rose" is made by regarding "this flower" as the subject and "a rose" as the object, and then contrasting them. In the process of cognition, contrast takes place between the sensory stimuli coming from the outside world (such as shapes, colors, and fragrances) and the prototypes within the human subject. In Unification epistemology, this process is called "collation," and is an instance of give-and-receive action of the contrast type.
D. Correlatives and Opposites
As stated earlier, in each individual truth body there always are paired elements of subject and object. These paired elements are called "correlatives." The subject and the object form a correlative relation centering on a purpose and engage in harmonious give-and-receive action, Forming either a union or a multiplied body. In Unification Thought, this is called "law of give-and-receive action," or simply, "give-and-receive law." This position contrasts with that of materialistic dialectic, which asserts that within every being there exist "opposites," or "contradictory elements," and that things can develop only through a struggle between these opposites.
Do things exist and develop through harmonious give-and receive action between correlatives (as Unification Thought asserts), or do they exist and develop through the struggle between opposites (as materialistic dialectic asserts)? It should be stated, first, that Unification Thought and materialistic dialectic agree in one point, namely, that in every being there always are two elements. In order to determine whether there is harmonious give-and receive action or struggle between these two elements, one need only to ascertain whether or not there is a common purpose between them. If there is a common purpose, we can say that there is harmonious give-and-receive action, and the two elements are correlatives; if there is no common purpose between them, we must say that the two elements are opposite. Another way is to examine whether the interaction between the two elements is harmonious or conflictive. If we find the interaction to be harmonious, then it is give-and-receive action; if, instead, we find it to be conflictive, then it is dialectical action.
Marx asserted that things develop through the dialectic, but lie only dealt with social problems, and did not cite a single example that could indicate that natural phenomena develop through the struggle of opposites. Thus, in order to compensate for that weakness in Marx' thought, Engels studied the natural sciences and compiled his conclusions in the books Dialectics of Nature and Anti-During. In the latter book, Engels announced he had reached the conclusion that "nature is the proof of dialectics." 7 If, however, one carefully examines the natural phenomena cited by Engels, one finds that what is occurring in those phenomena is not struggle but rather harmonious actions centered on a common purpose. (A more detailed explanation of this point has been given in my book The End of Communism, and therefore is omitted here.) Accordingly, nature cannot be said to be the "proof of dialectics"; instead, nature is the "proof of give-and receive action." Such struggles do exist, but only among human beings in human society; they are, however, a result from the human fall.
III. The Individual Image of the Individual Truth Body
Each individual truth body has, in addition to the universal image, unique attributes of its own. These unique attributes constitute the individual image of the individual truth body, and it goes without saying that this individual image originates from the Individual Image of the Original Image.
A. Individuation of the Universal Image
The individual image is not and image separate from the universal image; rather, it is the universal image specialized, or individuated. Since the universal image is composed of Sungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin, the manifestation of these attributes in a different way in an individual being is none other than the individual image of that particular individual being.
In the case of human beings, the personality (Sungsang) and physical appearance (Hyungsang) of individuals differ from one another. Furthermore, the yang and yin of the Sungsang and the yang and yin of the Hyungsang of individuals differ from one another. For example, the emotion of joy (a yang emotion) is expressed differently by different individuals, as is the emotion of sorrow (a yin emotion). The nose (a yang part of the body) differs in size and shape from individual to individual. The opening of the ear (a yin part of the body) also differs in size and shape from individual to individual.
B. Specific Difference and the Individual Image
The characteristics that the things of a class have in common are called "taxonomic characteristics," and among the various species belonging to the same genus, the taxonomic characteristics peculiar to a certain species are referred to as the "specific difference," of that species. Accordingly, the taxonomic characteristics of a particular living being are a combination of specific differences of different levels.
Consider, for example, the case of a human being. As a living thing, the human being has the specific difference (i.e., the taxonomic characteristics) of an animal rather than that of a plant. Furthermore, as an animal, the human being has the specific difference of a vertebrate rather than that of an invertebrate. As a vertebrate, the human being has the specific difference of a mammal rather than that of a fish or a reptile.
As a mammal, the human being has the specific difference of a primate rather than that of a carnivore or a rodent. As a primate, the human being has the specific difference of a hominid rather than that of an ape.
As a hominid, the human being has the specific difference of human rather than that of an ape-man. Finally, as Homo, the human being has the specific difference of Homo Sapiens rather than that of a primitive man.
In this way, the taxonomic characteristics of a human being include the specific differences of seven levels, namely, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Upon the foundation of these specific differences in seven levels, the special qualities of an individual, namely, the individual image, is established. Looking from the viewpoint of evolution theory, it can be said that the individual image is added to the taxonomic characteristics of a human being, which consists of the specific differences on seven levels.
The specific differences of these seven levels in human beings are classifications by biologists for the sake of convenience; but God did not create human beings by piling up layers upon layers of these specific differences. According to the Unification Principle, God created all the things of the universe in the image and likeness of the character and form of human beings, who were created later. 8 In creating the universe, what God first thought about was the human being; yet, the human being was the very last to be created. This means that God formed the conception of all things by taking the image of the human being as the standard. By taking the conception of the human being as the prototype, God developed the conception of animals; then, based on the conception of animals, He developed the conception of plants; and based on the conception of plants, He developed the conception of heavenly bodies and of minerals. Hence, in the process of conceptions, God first developed the conception of human beings, then that of animals, plants, and finally minerals, proceeding downward. With regard to actual creation, however, the order of the universe was the exact opposite. Specifically, God first created minerals and the heavenly bodies, then plants, animals, and finally human beings, proceeding upward.
In creating, the way God developed the conception of a human being was not that of simply by putting together specific differences; rather, He did it by conceiving immediately of the human being with all of God's attributes (i.e., Sungsang and Hyungsang, and yang and yin). Moreover, the conception that came to God's mind was not that of a man and a woman in abstract, but rather that of a specific man (Adam) and a specific woman (Eve), with concrete individual images. Next, God subtracted certain qualities and elements from the conception of human being and transformed it, whereby He created the conceptions of the various animals. Likewise, He subtracted certain qualities and elements from the conception of animal and transformed it, whereby He created the conceptions of the various plants. Furthermore, He subtracted certain qualities and elements from the conception of plant and transformed it, whereby He developed the conceptions of the various heavenly bodies and minerals.
With regard to animals, God started from the conception of the higher one and, by subtracting certain qualities and elements from it and by transforming it, He gradually developed the conceptions of the lower and simpler animals. (The same can be said of plants.) Accordingly, although if one observes only the results of creation, one gets the impression that the specific differences of progressive animal orders have been accumulated, layer upon layer, in human beings, still this is just a matter of appearances.
With regard to the microscopic world (e.g., molecules, atoms, and elementary particles), it should be noted that what corresponds to the individual images does not refer to specific characteristics of each individual molecule, atom, or elementary particle. Rather, their individual images refer to the specific characteristics of each category of molecules, atoms, and elementary particles. In this case, then, die individual image is identical with the specific difference. The reason is that atoms and molecules are component elements of beings of higher levels. In the case of the mineral realm, each thing made of minerals (e.g., a mountain, a river, a heavenly body) has its own individual image; with regard to the mineral elements, however, the individual image of each element is none other than its specific difference.
C. The Individual Image and the Environment
The individual image is the special quality that each being possesses by nature, but in it there is also the aspect of being able to change according to the environment. This is so because in every being-just as in the Original Image-there are identity-maintaining aspect and developmental aspect, and these two aspects are united. The identity-maintaining aspect is an unchanging aspect, and the developmental aspect is a changing aspect. Of these two, the unchanging aspect is essential, and the changing aspect is secondary.
From the viewpoint of genetics, it can be said that the individual image corresponds to the hereditary character. In the course of the growth of a being, the individual image of that being undergoes partial changes through continual give-and-receive action with the environment. The portion of the individual image that is changed can be regarded, in genetics, as its acquired character.
T. D. Lysenko (1898-1976) conducted an experiment to change autumn wheat into spring wheat through a process called vernalization, and claimed that the special qualities of living beings could be changed by the environment. Furthermore, he dismissed as mere metaphysics the genetic theories of Mendel and Morgan, according to which there exists in living beings an unchanging character, which is inherited through genes.
Lysenko denied the unchanging aspects of living beings and emphasized only the aspects of being able to change through environment. Lysenko's theory was received with favour by J. V. Stalin (1879-1953), so much so that in the Soviet Union the Mendelist Morganian scholars were ostracized. Later, however, Lysenko's theory, through further experiments by scholars abroad, was found to be in error, and the Mendel-Morgan theory was reinstated as the correct one. In the end, it became evident that Lysenkoism had been a theory fabricated under the thumb of the Soviet Government, and had been intended simply to justify the materialist dialectic.
With regard to the individual image, there still remains the question whether or not the environment determines human nature. Communism claims that the human being is a product of the environment and insists, for instance, that a leader such as V. I. Lenin (1870-1924) could have been born only in the circumstances of Russia of his time. From the perspective of Unification Thought, however, the human being is the subject and ruler of the environment. In this view, a person who has been endowed by birth with an outstanding individual character will emerge as a leader (i.e., a subject) in order to bring the environment under control. Therefore, in the case of the Russian Revolution, it should be understood that Lenin, in leading Russia to the Communist revolution, was bringing the environment under control.
IV. The Connected Body
The individual truth body contains within itself the correlative elements of subject and object centered on purpose, and these two elements are united through give-and-receive action. In addition to that, an individual truth body can also form a relationship of subject and object with another individual truth body, whereby the two can engage in give-and-receive action. When placed in such a relationship, the individual truth body is called a "connected body."
A. The Connected Body and the Dual Purpose of Existing Being
From the perspective of purpose, a connected body refers to an existing being with a dual purpose, namely, the "purpose for the individual" and the "purpose for the whole." The purpose for the individual is to maintain and develop its own existence as an individual being. The purpose for the whole is to contribute to the existence and the development of die whole.
For examples of dual purpose, let us consider the system of the created world, which extends from the level of elementary particles all the way to the level of the universe itself. Elementary particles exist for the purpose of forming atoms, but at the same time, they maintain their own existence as elementary particles.
Atoms exist for the purpose of forming molecules, but at the same time, they maintain their own existence as atoms. Molecules exist for the purpose of forming cells, but at the same time they maintain their own existence as molecules. Cells exist for the purpose of forming tissues and organs, but at the same time they maintain their own existence as cells. Atoms and molecules also exist for the purpose of forming minerals, which form all material bodies, such as the earth. The earth exists for the purpose of forming the Solar system, but at the same time, it maintains its own existence as the earth. The Solar system exists for the purpose of forming the galaxy, but at the same time, it maintains its own existence as the solar system. The galaxy exists for the purpose of forming the universe, but at the same time, it maintains its own existence as the galaxy. Furthermore, the universe exists for the sake of humankind, but at the same time, it maintains its own existence as the universe.
In this way, all created beings have a dual purpose, namely, the purpose for the whole and the purpose for the individual. Among the various purposes for the whole, which one is the highest purpose? In the created world, the highest purpose is to exist for the sake of human beings. For human beings, the highest purpose is to exist for the sake of God. Thus, all created beings, from elementary particles to the universe and to human beings, exist as connected bodies with dual purpose.
Within the purpose for the whole, there are two types of purposes, namely the "Sungsang purpose for the whole" and the "Hyungsang purpose of the whole." For example, the earth has the purpose of forming the solar system, and at the same time it has the purpose of serving as the dwelling place for human beings. In the case of electrons, they revolve around the atomic nucleus in order to form an atom, and also they do so for human beings by forming all things, which exist for the sake of human beings, since things are objects of human dominion. Thus, each level of created beings from elementary particles to the universe itself -- exists both for the purpose of being part of a higher level being and, at the same time, for the sake of humankind. The former purpose is called the "Hyungsang purpose for the whole," and the latter purpose is called the "Sungsang purpose for the whole" (Fig. 2-4).
Fig. 2-4: The System of Purposes for the Whole in Created Beings
B. The Connected Body and the Original Image
We saw previously that the Original Image exists in a two-stage structure, namely, the Inner Four-Position Base and the Outer Four-Position Base. In the created world, all beings exist in a similar two-stage structure: they maintain inner four-position bases as individual truth bodies while forming outer four-position bases with other individual truth bodies.
In human beings, an inner four-position base is formed through give-and-receive action between the spirit mind and the physical mind, and an outer four-position base is formed through give-and-receive action with another person. Human beings must harmoniously maintain both their inner and their outer four position bases. In other words, the proper way of life is to live a life of values (forming inner four-position bases) and to love others (forming outer four-position bases).
In forming an outer four-position base, the human being enters into give-and-receive actions with other people in six directions, namely, above and below, front and back, and right and left. Taking oneself as the center, above there are one's parents, superiors, and seniors; below there are one's children, subordinates, and juniors; to the front, there are leaders, more experienced colleagues, and teachers; to the back, there are followers, less experienced colleagues, and students; to die right, there are brothers and sisters, friends, and co-workers; and to the left, there are opponents, competitors, and incompatible persons. The original way of life for human beings is to form harmonious relationships in all six directions (Fig. 2-5).
Fig. 2-5: The Six Directions of Human Relationships of a Connected Body
Human beings also stand in a relationship with the natural environment. They are susceptible even to the influence of the stars that is to say, it is commonly held that cosmic rays exert a certain influence on human physiological functions. Human beings have a close connection with minerals, plants, and animals. In this sense as well, the human being is a connected body.
C Materialistic Dialectic and Interconnectedness
In agreement with Unification Thought, materialistic dialectic asserts that all things in the universe are mutually interconnected.
Stalin, for instance, emphasized the interconnectedness of all things and branded as metaphysical the position of those who regard things as separate beings. He said, "Contrary to metaphysics, dialectics does not regard nature as an accidental agglomeration of things, of phenomena, unconnected with, isolated from, and independent from, each other, but as a connected and integral whole, in which things, phenomena, are organically connected with, dependent on, and determined by, each other." 9 From the perspective of Unification Thought, all beings are created in the resemblance of God's dual characteristics, and therefore they exist not only as individual truth bodies, but also as connected bodies, whereby they are connected, directly or indirectly, with other individual truth bodies. From this perspective, we regard the universe as a huge, organic body. Materialistic dialectic explains all this in terms of interconnectedness. Nevertheless, materialistic dialectic merely acknowledges the interconnectedness of all things; it offers no adequate explanation as to why things are interconnected.
In contrast, Unification Thought maintains that each thing is interconnected with other beings centering on a purpose. Interconnectedness is something inevitable because every being has a purpose for the whole and engages in give-and-receive action with other beings that share the same purpose for the whole. For things, the highest purpose for the whole (in Sungsang terms) is essentially to exist for the sake of humankind. From this perspective, the entire universe can be regarded as an immense, organic body consisting of innumerable individual beings, all of which are mutually interconnected.
In the previous discussion, we dealt with the "image of existence" of existing beings, namely, the individual truth body and the connected body. In the discussion that follows, we will deal with the "mode of existence" of existing beings.
V. The Mode of Existence
The mode of existence of existing beings refers to the manner in which all created beings exist. In a nutshell, no created being can exist unless it engages in motion; hence, motion is the mode of existence of all created beings. God, who is the Absolute Being, (toes not engage in motion; therefore, it is impossible to think of a mode of existence in the Original Image. Created beings, however, exist in time and space, and so they have a mode of existence, which is motion.
A. Circular Motion
When, in the created world, two elements in the relationship of subject and object engage in give-and-receive action, centering on purpose, then the result is that both union and motion appear simultaneously. Purpose itself is not an existing being, and the union is merely a state that arises as a result of the give-and-receive action; therefore, the participants in the motion of the give-and-receive action are the two beings in the roles of subject and object. To be precise, the center of the give-and-receive action lies not in some intermediary position between the subject and the object, but within the subject itself.
Accordingly, the motion of this give-and-receive action cannot but become a subject-centered circular motion (Fig. 2-6). In an atom, for instance, electrons revolve around the nucleus; and likewise in the solar system, planets revolve around the sun.
Fig. 2-6. Circular Motion Through Give-and-Receive Action
What, then, is the reason why created beings necessarily engage in circular motion? The reason is found in the Original Image itself. In the world of God, there exists no time or space, and therefore, no motion.
However, even though in God there is no mode of existence, or circular motion, still there must exist in the Original Image some prototype of the circular motion that exists in the created world. This prototype is the round and harmonious nature of the give-and-receive action between the Original Sungsang and the Original Hyungsang. In the Original Image, the Original Sungsang arid the Original Hyungsang perform harmonious give-and-receive action centering either on Heart or on Purpose. If the round and harmonious nature of the give-and-receive action in God were to be expressed in terms of time and space, it would become circular motion. The world of created beings is the symbolic expression of God. For instance, the vastness of the ocean symbolizes the vastness of God's mind; the heat of the sun symbolizes the warmth of God's love; and the light of the sun symbolizes the brightness of God's truth. Likewise, circular motion in the created world symbolizes something in God, namely, the round and harmonious nature of the give-and-receive action within God. Harmonious give-and receive action centered on Heart is nothing but the expression of love.
Love has no corners or angles, and is expressed in a circular form. Thus, if we were to express the Original Image in a diagram, such a diagram would be of a circular form or a spherical form.
God is formless and has no definite appearance; yet, God can appear in any form. In other words, God, who is formless, has a limitless number of forms. This can be compared to the form of water. If placed in a rectangular container, water becomes rectangular; if placed in a triangular container, water becomes triangular; and if placed in a round container, it becomes round. In other words, water can take on any form, depending on its container. Therefore, it has a limitless number of forms. Of all of these forms, however, which one is typical to water? The spherical form. We know this from the fact that when a drop of water falls, it assumes a spherical form.
Similarly, God can manifest Himself in the form of waves, in the form of wind, and so forth, but if we were to chose a typical form of God, that would be the spherical form. In this sense, the Original Image can be expressed in a circular form or a spherical form. These forms should be seen as symbolic expressions of the round and harmonious nature of give-and-receive action within God. That is why all things, in resemblance to the Original Image, have a basically spherical form. Atoms, the earth, the moon, the sun, stars, and so on, all have a spherical form. Even plants and animals can be said to have a spherical form. The starting point of the growth of a plant is a seed, and the starting point of the growth of an animal is an egg. These have a basically spherical form. When things engage in the motion of give-and-receive action, they move in circular or spherical paths, resembling the round and harmonious nature of the give-and-receive action within the Original Image.
There is still another reason why the motion performed when the subject and the object engage in give-and-receive action is circular. If the object did not turn around the subject, but instead moved in a straight line, then the object would ultimately depart from the subject. If that were to occur, the subject and the object would become unable to perform give-and-receive action. But if they could not perform give-and-receive action, the created being could not exist; for it is through give-and-receive action that the forces for existence, multiplication, and action come into being. Accordingly, in order for subject and object to engage in give-and-receive action, the object must maintain a continuous relationship to the subject-and in order for that to happen, the object must go around the subject.
B. Rotation and Revolution
Any individual being engaged in circular motion is actually performing two kinds of simultaneous motion, namely, rotation and revolution. The reason is that every individual being is both an individual truth body and a connected body. This is so because each individual being engages in internal give-and-receive action as well as external give-and-receive action. As a result of these two kinds of give-and-receive action, two kinds of circular motion come into being. The circular motion produced through internal give-and-receive action is rotation, and the circular motion produced through external give-and-receive action is revolution.
For example, the earth revolves around the sun while rotating around itself, an electron revolves around the atomic nucleus while rotating around itself Rotation and revolution, then, are the results of the internal and external motions of things, and the reason these two types of motion exist is that they resemble the round and harmonious nature of the inner give-and-receive action within the Original Image and the round and harmonious nature of the outer give-and-receive action within the Original Image.
C. Form of Circular Motion
All created beings are in circular motion; in reality, however, not all beings make circular motion in the literal sense. The basic form of the mode of existence of all created beings is circular motion, but there are other forms of motion, which are modifications of it.
1. Basic Circular Motion
Basic circular motion refers to the typical form of circular motion. It can be of two types, namely, "circular motion in space" and "circular motion in time."
a) Circular Motion in Space
The earth revolves around the sun while rotating on its own axis; electrons revolve around the atomic nucleus while rotating about themselves. These are types of circular motion in the literal sense, and since they practically always maintain the same orbit, their motion can also be called "repetitive motion."
b) Circular Motion in Time (Spiral Motion)
The growth and multiplication of the living things and the succession of generations can be regarded as a kind of circular motion, that is, spiral motion. Let us consider the growth of plants. A seed puts forth a new sprout, which grows into it plant; the plant blooms, bears fruit, and produces numerous new seeds. The new seeds, greater in number than the initial one, again sprout, grow, and bear new fruit. A similar process occurs in the development of animals. A fertilized egg grows; the young are born; the young grow to maturity, engage in reproduction, and again new fertilized eggs are made. The new fertilized eggs, greater in number than the initial one, again grow, the young are born and engage in reproduction. Thus, both plants and animals preserve the species by repeating the cycles of life (life history).
The succession of generations, which is intended for the preservation of the species, is a kind of circular motion, and its characteristic features are that it possesses purposefulness, it grows with time, and it has the nature of proceeding in distinct stages. This is called "spiral motion" (Fig. 2-7). For example, art apple seed lilts the purpose of bearing the apple fruit, which it fulfils through a process that takes a certain period of time. A complete stage (cycle) of growth comes to an end when new seeds are produced within the new fruit.
Let us consider now the significance of living things making spiral motion. The physical person of a human being is not an eternal being. When the spirit person becomes perfected, the physical dies, and the mature spirit person goes on to live eternally in the spirit world. (Yet, because of the Human Fall people have died physically with their spirit persons still unperfected.) The realization of the purpose of creation means that human beings grow, perfect their individuality, get married, bear children, and have dominion over all things-in other words, they fulfill the three great blessings (Gen. 1:28). Accordingly, human beings have been created to live during a certain period of time on earth and to multiply through the succession of generations. Therefore, all living things, which exist as objects to human beings, preserve their species through the succession of generations, and multiply in order to become the object of dominion by human beings on earth.
2. Transformed Circular Motion
Fundamentally, an individual truth body exists by engaging in circular motion. However, due to the particular requirements of the whole purpose at the time when individual truth bodies exist as connected bodies, the circular motion cannot but be transformed. In such cases, circular motion becomes transformed circular motion. There are two kinds of transformed circular motion, namely, motion with a fixed nature, and motion with an alternating nature.
a) Motion with a Fixed Nature
The atoms forming a being are firmly connected with one another, and each atom maintains a fixed position. In the case of the earth, for instance, if the numerous atoms forming it were to move about randomly, then the earth would revert to a gaseous state, and human beings would not be able to live on it.
If the earth is to be a dwelling place for human beings, the atoms that constitute it must be fixedly united to form a solid ground. Therefore, the atoms forming the earth perform transformed circular motion whereby they maintain fixed positions in order to form the dwelling place for human beings.
Similarly, the cells forming the tissues of living beings are united with one another. For example, the cells forming the heart of an animal are fixedly united with one another, which enables the heart to contract and expand to perform its function. If the heart cells were to move about independently, the heart would not be able to perform its function.
Plants remain stationary, with their roots firmly set under the ground. They remain stationary so that human beings can watch their blossoms and harvest their fruits. These are examples of "motion with a fixed nature."
b) Motion within an Alternating Nature
In animals, instead of cells making circular motion, the blood and the lymph circulate in the body, connecting the cells, and thereby having the same effect as if the cells themselves were performing circular motion. In plants, also, water and minerals absorbed by the roots circulate throughout the body of the plant through the xylem vessels and tracheids, and the food which has been manufactured in the leaves, through phloem tubes (sieve tubes), thus connecting the cells. The result of this is the same effect as if the cells themselves were making circular motion. In the earth, also, there are the convection currents in the mantle, the movement of the plates (called tectonics), and so on, which manifest the effects of circular motion.
The give-and-receive actions in human economic life consist of give-and-receive actions between entrepreneurs and enterprises, between enterprises and enterprises, between enterprises and consumers, and so forth, in which the circulation of money plays the role of circular motion.
Those are some examples of "motion with an alternating nature."
3. Spiritual Circular Motion (Sungsang Circular Motion)
The give-and-receive action between the spirit mind and the physical mind in human beings is not a physical kind of circular motion, but rather a spiritual kind of circular motion in the sense that the physical mind responds to the desires of the spirit mind. Accordingly, this is spiritual circular motion, or circular motion on the Sungsang level. Also, in the sense that the object behaves as the subject desires, the harmonious give-and-receive action between one person and another in the family or society is circular motion on the Sungsang level, or spiritual circular motion. For example, if parents love their children and instruct them well, the children will come to obey their parents well. This, also, falls into the category of spiritual circular motion.
D. A Critique of Materialistic Dialectic
1. On Development
Living beings are endowed with life. Life refers to the autonomy and dominion of the Principle, or the conscious energy latent in living beings. The growth of living beings is based on the autonomy and dominion of the Principle, and it is the motion of life itself performed by the unity of consciousness and energy latent in living things. Autonomy is the ability to direct one's own motion without being forced by other beings. The earth revolves around the sun, and it does so by following a law in a merely mechanical manner. Living things, however, do not just follow laws mechanically. They are able to control themselves as they grow and as they cope with various kinds of situations in their environment. This is the meaning of "autonomy of the Principle." On the other hand, "dominion of the Principle" refers to the function of exerting influence on the surroundings. 10 For example, when a seed is sown, a sprout emerges, and leaves come out. At the same time, plants have an influence on their surroundings. Life, then, when viewed from the aspect of growth, is autonomy, and when viewed from the aspect of influencing its surroundings, is dominion.
This kind of growth of living things is a developmental motion. Development has a definite purpose and direction. Purpose and direction are factors that are determined by life. That is to say, there is life- within the seed of a plant, and it is life that makes the seed grow toward the goal of a tree and fruit. Also, there is life within a fertilized egg of an animal, and it is life that makes the egg grow toward the goal of becoming an adult animal.
Let us now consider the case of the development of the universe. According to the Big Bang theory, the universe started as a mass of energy, of extremely high temperature and density, concentrated in one point.
A great explosion took place, and the universe began to expand. This supposedly happened 15-20 billion years ago. After the initial explosion, the hot, swirling gases eventually cooled and condensed to form the galaxies. In each galaxy, numerous stars came into being, many of which were surrounded by planets. One of the stars with planets was the sun, and one of its planets was the earth. Life came into being on earth, and finally human beings appeared.
If, when considering the development of the universe, we look at that process over a comparatively short period of time, we can only find physico-chemical laws at work. If, however, we look at that process over a longer period of time-say, several billion years-we find that the universe, in addition to the following physico-chemical laws, has also been developing in a definite direction. This tells us that there has been a goal in the development of the universe. That goal was to produce heavenly bodies to be the living environment for human beings, who were meant to have dominion over the universe. What has given this kind of direction to the development of the universe is the function of consciousness, or reason, latent behind the universe. It can be called the "consciousness of the universe," or the "life of the universe." Just as in the development of a plant there is a seed that grows and bears fruit, so in the development of the universe we can consider that, in the beginning, there was a "seed of the universe," which has been growing until today. The human being is the ultimate fruit of the universe. Accordingly, just as the fruit is the goal of the plant, so the human being was the goal of the development of the universe. It was stated earlier that growth is a phenomenon that exists only in living things, but seen from the perspective of so vast a period of time as several billion years, one realizes that the totality of the created beings, including the mineral world (in other words, the entire universe) has been growing.
Development is an irreversible, purposeful motion that proceeds toward a definite goal. Yet, Communism never describes development as motion proceeding toward a goal. Communism merely admits lawfulness and necessity. Why does it deny purpose (goal)? The reason is that, if purpose is admitted, the question as to what entity has established that purpose is raised. Only will, or reason, can establish a purpose. From this it follows that God has established the purpose of the universe. That is why Communism has never admitted purpose. In contrast, Unification Thought, in addition to describing development in terms of necessity and lawfulness, asserts that there is purposefulness in development. For example, when seeds are sown, they necessarily germinate. This is the necessary result of their proceeding toward the purpose of bearing fruit.
Lawfulness is also at work in created things, so that they will realize their purpose, namely, the purpose of creation. As stated in the Theory of the Original Image, within God's Sungsang, centering on purpose, the Inner Sungsang (reason) and the Inner Hyungsang (law) engaged in give-and-receive action, whereby Logos was formed. Logos is the united body of reason and law. Law already existed within God's Inner Hyungsang, even prior to God's creation of the universe and it existed there for the realization of the purpose of creation. In other words, law had been prepared, from the very beginning, for the realization of the purpose.
Communist materialism denies purposefulness in the development of the universe. This view implies die human being is a purposeless being, born through the necessity of law. If the human being were an accidental being, without purpose, what kind of world would result from that? It would be a world where there was no place for values or morality. A world without values or morality cannot but become a world where the strong prey upon the weak, and only the strong can survive.
2. The Communist Perspective on Motion
Communism comprehends matter as "matter in motion." Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) said, "motion is the mode of existence of matter. Never anywhere has there been matter without motion, nor can there be. . .
Matter without motion is Just as inconceivable as [notion without matter". 11 For what purpose does Communism make such a statement? Its purpose is to deny the existence of God. Newton considered the universe as an enormous machine and recognized God as the Being who had made the machine and had caused it to start moving. In that kind of framework, if we think of matter and motion as separate realities, we cannot but admit that motion must have been started by something other than matter itself-ultimately, by some being like God. Thus, in order to prevent such a metaphysical interpretation of motion, Communists defined motion as the mode of existence originally inherent in matter.
From the Unification Thought viewpoint, things exist and move through the give-and-receive action between subject and object. Accordingly, motion is the mode of existence of all things. Here, the give-and-receive action between subject and object is an action intended for the realization of the purpose of creation. Ultimately, then, motion exists for the realization of the purpose of creation. For example, the earth engages in give-and-receive action internally and externally in order to realize its purpose of creation-that is, to provide the environment in which human beings can live-and therefore engages in rotation and revolution.
Communism asserts that motion is the mode of existence of matter, but it says nothing at all about the reason why matter has such a mode of existence or about the kind of motion it performs whether such a motion is linear or circular or in some other form. Communism merely asserts that things move through the struggle of opposites.
VI. The Position of Existence
Every individual body has its own place for existence.The place that a being possesses is called "position of existence" in Unification Thought. When a being's position of existence is different from that of another, and the two beings are in the relationship of subject and object (that is, in the relationship of exerting dominion and receiving dominion), give-and-receive action can take place between the two. As a connected body, a being is simultaneously both in the position of an object and in the position of a subject. As a result, numerous beings become connected to form a system of positions. This is what is meant by order, or an orderly system. Such a system of positions of subject and object is simply a reflection of the positions of subject and object in the Original Image, which are projected onto the created world.
There are numerous stars in the universe, which engage in give-and-receive actions from their different positions, forming an orderly system and a vast organic body. The order of the universe is of two kinds, namely, vertical and horizontal. The vertical order of the universe is as follows: The moon (a satellite) and the earth (a planet) engage in give-and-receive action, with the earth as the subject and the moon as the object. Next, the earth engages in give-and-receive action with the sun (a star), forming a part of the solar system. Here the earth is the object, and the sun is the subject.
Next, the sun engages in give-and-receive action with the galactic center, and together with many other stars, forms the galaxy. Here the sun is the object, and the galactic center is the subject. Furthermore, the galaxy, in unity with many other galaxies, engages in give-and-receive action with the center of the universe, forming the universe. In this case, the galaxy is the object, and the center of the universe is the subject. This line-running from satellite to planet, star, and galactic center, all the way to the center of the universe is the vertical order of the universe.
Let us now consider the horizontal order of the universe. If we look at the nine planets of the solar system, we can see that they form an orderly, horizontal arrangement of Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. This planetary system, centering on the Sun, is an example of horizontal order in the universe. The vertical order and the horizontal order of the universe are illustrated in Fig. 2-8.
Fig. 2-8. An Example of Vertical and Horizontal Orders in the Universe
The human family, in its original form, should also have had an orderly system like that of the universe. In the family, there is vertical order, which consists of grandchildren, children, parents, grandparents, and so on; and there is horizontal order, which consists of brothers and sisters centered on the parents. The vertical order and the horizontal order of the family are illustrated in Fig. 2-9.
From the perspective of Unification Thought, the human being is a microcosm, or a miniature, of the universe. Considered from the aspect of order, the family is a miniature of the universe, and the universe is an enlarged form of the family. It is well known that in the universe there are innumerable planetary systems similar to the solar system. Therefore, we can assert that the universe is an aggregate of innumerable families of heavenly bodies.
Fig. 2-9: Vertical Order and Horizontal Order within the Family
In the universe, perfect order is maintained through harmonious give-and-receive action. In the solar system, centering on the sun, the nine planets maintain a collective disc shape while moving on their specific individual orbits around the sun. In the Milky Way, approximately 200 billion stars maintain, as a whole the shape of a convex lens while remaining in their respective established orbits. In the universe, there are 200 billion galaxies which maintain the unity of the universe as a whole while remaining in their respective established orbits.
Therefore, in the family as well as in society, order was originally supposed to be maintained through harmonious give-and receive action. Because of the human fall, however, the family has lost its original image of existence. To be precise, in families it frequently occurs that the husband and the wife become disunited, and parents and children oppose each other. Society, which is an extension of the family, has also become extremely disorderly.
VII. The Law of the Universe
From the previous discussion, it follows that we must look at the universe in order to find the way for the family and society to exist. The law that governs the universe is called the Way of I-leaven. This law refers to the harmonious give-and-receive action between subject and object. It has seven characteristic features, as follows:
Every being not only possesses the correlative elements of subject and object within itself, but also engages in external correlative relationships with other beings. Without correlativity (both internal and external), no being can exist or develop.
2. Purposefulness and Centrality
The correlative elements of subject and object always possess a common purpose and perform give-and-receive action centering on that purpose.
3. Order and Position
Every being has its own position, whereby it maintains a certain order.
The give-and-receive action between subject and object is harmonious. There can be no opposition or struggle in their relationship, for God's love always works there.
5. Individuality and Connectedness
Every being is an individual truth body and, at the same time, exists as a connected body. Each being, while maintaining its own inherent characteristics, has relationships with other beings and interacts with them.
6. Identity-Maintaining Nature and Developmental
Nature Every being maintains its own unchangeable essence (identity maintaining nature) throughout its life, and, at the same time, has aspects that change and develop (developmental nature) as it grows.
7. Circular Motion
In the give-and-receive action between the subject and the object, the object revolves, centering around the subject, and performs circular motion in space or in time.
It can be said that the law of the universe is the work of the Logos. Logos is law, but at the same time it contains reason. Moreover, behind the Logos there is love at work, for when God created the universe through the Logos, the motivation of creation was Heart and love. Therefore, the Reverend Sun Myung Moon has stated that working in the universe there is not only physical force, but also the power of love.
Applied to the human family and society, the law of the universe manifests itself as ethics and morality. To be precise, the law of the universe and the ethical laws are in a relationship of correspondence.
When an individual being violates the law of the universe, that being becomes unable to maintain its own existence. For example, if one of the planets of the solar system were to deviate from its orbit, not only would that planet be unable to maintain its own existence, but also great calamities to the solar system would ensue. Likewise in the family and society, if people violate ethical laws, that can only give rise to destruction and disorder.
Accordingly, in order to save a confused society, the urgent thing to do, before anything else, is to establish ethical laws. Yet, the ethical laws based on traditional religions and thought systems do not have sufficiently developed logical explanations, and therefore they are not persuasive to present-day rational people, and these laws are all but neglected today. Thus, in Unification Thought we endeavor to provide a basis for ethical laws, so that they may be strengthened, from the standpoint that ethical laws correspond to the law of the universe. This point will be explained in further detail in "Axiology" and "Ethics." The final point will be an analysis from the position of Unification Thought, of the views of Communism concerning the law of the universe.
Communism is based on a dialectical view of the universe; therefore, it asserts that the phenomena of motion, change, and development in the universe take place through contradiction, or the struggle of opposites inherent in all things. Communism also claims that, in order for human society to develop, struggle (i.e., class struggle) is necessary. On this matter, Lenin wrote, "The unity (coincidence, identity, equal action) of opposites is conditional, temporary, transitory, relative. The struggle of mutual exclusive opposites is absolute, just as development and motion are absolute." 12 Lenin went as far as definitively affirming that "Development is tile struggle of opposites." 13 Communism asserts that things develop through the struggle of opposites, but in reality, there is no such phenomenon in the universe.- In the past, as well as today, it is only through maintaining harmony that the universe has been developing. If one observes tile universe, one may find phenomena, such as the explosion of stars, that appear partially destructive, but which in reality are not destructive. These phenomena are not different from what happens in a living being. When the cells of a living being become old, they are replaced by new cells. Likewise, when stars become old, they disappear, and new stars are born-and in this way the universe, which is an enormous organic body, has been maintaining itself.
At this point someone might say that, since the world of the animals is a world in which the stronger prey upon the weaker, the theory of the struggle of opposites holds true there. For example, snakes eat frogs, and cats eat mice. Communism attempts to justify their theory of struggle in human society on the basis of these facts of nature. It should be noted, however, that the struggles between snakes and frogs or between cats and mice are struggles between animals of different species.
In taxonomy, living beings are divided into the groupings of kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. In the case of cats and mice, cats are in the order of Carnivora, and mice are in the order of Rodentia. Cats and mice are different from each other on the level of order. In the case of snakes and frogs, snakes are in the class of Reptilia, and frogs are in the class Amphibia. Snakes and frogs are different from each other on the level of class. In other words, when an animal preys upon another, in most cases the preying animal is different from its prey at least on the level of species. In nature, there is hardly a case in which animals belonging to the same species fight at the risk of their lives. In marked contrast, human beings, who all belong to the same species (namely, Homo Sapiens) plunder from one another and kill one another. Therefore, the fact that human beings struggle with one another cannot be justified on the basis of nature's phenomenon that the stronger prey upon the weaker.
As an illustration, consider the case of struggle among lions. When a new lion is placed into a pride of lions, a struggle may take place. However, there arises no killing, as the weaker lion surrenders to the stronger one. Accordingly, this kind of struggle is intended to determine which lion should be the leader-in other words, it is intended to establish order. This is not an essential struggle. Therefore, this kind of struggle just as the kind discussed above, cannot be the basis for justifying the kind of struggle in which one human being kills another human being. Moreover, even though in nature we may find phenomena in which the stronger prey upon the weaker, more often than not what we find is that different animals cooperate with one another and coexist.
Therefore, we cannot rationalize struggle between human beings, thereby making a law out of it, on the basis of the phenomenon of the stronger preying upon the weaker in nature.
It is only because humankind fell away from God, and became self-centered, that human beings have come to plunder from and kill one another. Accordingly, if humankind returns to its original state, such struggles will no longer be seen in human society. Furthermore, if humankind had not fallen, people would have become the rulers of the cosmos, and would have exercised dominion over nature through love. Therefore, if humankind comes to exercise dominion with love, even greater harmony will be realized in nature.
Thus, we come to the conclusion that the universe and human society have been developing, not through the struggle of opposites, as Communism asserts, but rather through harmonious give and-receive action between correlatives. that is. between subject and object.